15) Why is C language being considered a middle level language?
This is because C language is rich in features that make it behave like a high level language while at the same time can interact with hardware using low level methods. The use of a well structured approach to programming, coupled with English-like words used in functions, makes it act as a high level language. On the other hand, C can directly access memory structures similar to assembly language routines.
16) What are reserved words?
Reserved words are words that are part of the standard C language library. This means that reserved words have special meaning and therefore cannot be used for purposes other than what it is originally intended for. Examples of reserved words are int, void, and return.
17) What are linked list?
A linked list is composed of nodes that are connected with another. In C programming, linked lists are created using pointers. Using linked lists is one efficient way of utilizing memory for storage.
18) What is FIFO?
In C programming, there is a data structure known as queue. In this structure, data is stored and accessed using FIFO format, or First-In-First-Out. A queue represents a line wherein the first data that was stored will be the first one that is accessible as well.
19) What are binary trees?
Binary trees are actually an extension of the concept of linked lists. A binary tree has two pointers, a left one and a right one. Each side can further branch to form additional nodes, which each node having two pointers as well.
20) Not all reserved words are written in lowercase. TRUE or FALSE?
FALSE. All reserved words must be written in lowercase; otherwise the C compiler would interpret this as unidentified and invalid.
21) What is the difference between the expression “++a” and “a++”?
In the first expression, the increment would happen first on variable a, and the resulting value will be the one to be used. This is also known as a prefix increment. In the second expression, the current value of variable a would the one to be used in an operation, before the value of a itself is incremented. This is also known as postfix increment.
22) What would happen to X in this expression: X += 15; (assuming the value of X is 5)
X +=15 is a short method of writing X = X + 15, so if the initial value of X is 5, then 5 + 15 = 20.
23) What is wrong with this program statement? void = 10;
The word void is a reserved word in C language. You cannot use reserved words as a user-defined variable.
24) Is this program statement valid? INT = 10.50;
Assuming that INT is a variable of type float, this statement is valid. One may think that INT is a reserved word and must not be used for other purposes. However, recall that reserved words are express in lowercase, so the C compiler will not interpret this as a reserved word.
25) What are actual arguments?
When you create and use functions that need to perform an action on some given values, you need to pass these given values to that function. The values that are being passed into the called function are referred to as actual arguments.
26) What is a newline escape sequence?
A newline escape sequence is represented by the \n character. This is used to insert a new line when displaying data in the output screen. More spaces can be added by inserting more \n characters. For example, \n\n would insert two spaces. A newline escape sequence can be placed before the actual output expression or after.
27) What is output redirection?
It is the process of transferring data to an alternative output source other than the display screen. Output redirection allows a program to have its output saved to a file. For example, if you have a program named COMPUTE, typing this on the command line as COMPUTE >DATA can accept input from the user, perform certain computations, then have the output redirected to a file named DATA, instead of showing it on the screen.
28) What are run-time errors?
These are errors that occur while the program is being executed. One common instance wherein run-time errors can happen is when you are trying to divide a number by zero. When run-time errors occur, program execution will pause, showing which program line caused the error.
29) What is the difference between functions abs() and fabs()?
These 2 functions basically perform the same action, which is to get the absolute value of the given value. Abs() is used for integer values, while fabs() is used for floating type numbers. Also, the prototype for abs() is under <stdlib.h>, while fabs() is under <math.h>.
30) What are formal parameters?
In using functions in a C program, formal parameters contain the values that were passed by the calling function. The values are substituted in these formal parameters and used in whatever operations as indicated within the main body of the called function.
31) What are control structures?
Control structures take charge at which instructions are to be performed in a program. This means that program flow may not necessarily move from one statement to the next one, but rather some alternative portions may need to be pass into or bypassed from, depending on the outcome of the conditional statements.
32) Write a simple code fragment that will check if a number is positive or negative.
If (num<=0) printf("number is positive"); else printf ("number is negative");
33) When is a “switch” statement preferable over an “if” statement?
The switch statement is best used when dealing with selections based on a single variable or expression. However, switch statements can only evaluate integer and character data types.
34) What are global variables and how do you declare them?
Global variables are variables that can be accessed and manipulated anywhere in the program. To make a variable global, place the variable declaration on the upper portion of the program, just after the preprocessor directives section.
35) What are enumerated types?
Enumerated types allow the programmer to use more meaningful words as values to a variable. Each item in the enumerated type variable is actually associated with a numeric code. For example, one can create an enumerated type variable named DAYS whose values are Monday, Tuesday… Sunday.
36) What does the function toupper() do?
It is used to convert any letter to its upper case mode. toupper() function prototype is declared in #include <ctype.h>. Note that this function will only convert a single character, and not an entire string.
37) Is it possible to have a function as a parameter in another function?
Yes, that is allowed in C programming. You just need to include the entire function prototype into the parameter field of the other function where it is to be used.
38) What are multidimensional arrays?
Multidimensional arrays are capable of storing data in a two or more dimensional structure. For example, you can use a 2 dimensional array to store the current position of pieces in a chess game, or position of players in a tic-tac-toe program.
39) Which function in C can be used to append a string to another string?
The strcat function. It takes two parameters, the source string and the string value to be appended to the source string.
40) What is the difference between functions getch() and getche()?
Both functions will accept a character input value from the user. When using getch(), the key that was pressed will not appear on the screen, and is automatically captured and assigned to a variable. When using getche(), the key that was pressed by the user will appear on the screen, while at the same time being assigned to a variable.
41) Dothese two program statements perform the same output? 1) scanf(“%c”, &letter); 2) letter=getchar()
Yes, they both do the exact same thing, which is to accept the next key pressed by the user and assign it to variable named letter.
42) What are structure types in C?
Structure types are primarily used to store records. A record is made up of related fields. This makes it easier to organize a group of related data.
43) What does the characters “r” and “w” mean when writing programs that will make use of files?
“r” means “read” and will open a file as input wherein data is to be retrieved. “w” means “write”, and will open a file for output. Previous data that was stored on that file will be erased.
44) What is the difference between text files and binary files?
Text files contain data that can easily be understood by humans. It includes letters, numbers and other characters. On the other hand, binary files contain 1s and 0s that only computers can interpret.
45) Is it possible to create your own header files?
Yes, it is possible to create a customized header file. Just include in it the function prototypes that you want to use in your program, and use the #include directive followed by the name of your header file.
46) What is dynamic data structure?
Dynamic data structure provides a means for storing data more efficiently into memory. Using dynamic memory allocation, your program will access memory spaces as needed. This is in contrast to static data structure, wherein the programmer has to indicate a fix number of memory space to be used in the program.
47) In a switch statement, what will happen if a break statement is omitted?
If a break statement was not placed at the end of a particular case portion? It will move on to the next case portion, possibly causing incorrect output.
48) Describe how arrays can be passed to a user defined function
One thing to note is that you cannot pass the entire array to a function. Instead, you pass to it a pointer that will point to the array first element in memory. To do this, you indicate the name of the array without the brackets.
49) Can you pass an entire structure to functions?
Yes, it is possible to pass an entire structure to a function in a call by method style. However, some programmers prefer declaring the structure globally, then pass a variable of that structure type to a function. This method helps maintain consistency and uniformity in terms of argument type.
50) What is gets() function?
The gets() function allows a full line data entry from the user. When the user presses the enter key to end the input, the entire line of characters is stored to a string variable. Note that the enter key is not included in the variable, but instead a null terminator is placed after the last character.
51) The % symbol has a special use in a printf statement. How would you place this character as part of the output on the screen?
You can do this by using %% in the printf statement. For example, you can write printf(“10%%”) to have the output appear as 10% on the screen.