Interview Questions on Embedded Processors [Part-I]

What is instruction cycle?

The sequence of operation that the processor has to carry out while executing a instruction is called instruction cycle. Each instruction cycle of processor consist of a number of machine cycles. The sequence of stages is:

  1. Read an instruction.
  2. Decode the instruction.
  3. Find the address of operand.
  4. Retrieve an operand.
  5. Perform desired operation.
  6. Find the address of destination.
  7. Store the result into destination.

What is machine cycle?

The steps performed by computer processor for each machine language instruction received. The machine cycle is 4 process cycle.

  • Fetch: Retrieve an instruction from memory
  • Decode: Translate the retrieved instruction into series of computer commands.
  • Execute: Execute the computer command.
  • Store: Send and write the result back into memory.
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Explain the function of CPU in Microprocessor?

A Microprocessor controls all the functions of CPU Central Processing Unit of a computer or digital device. The microprocessor is programmed to give and receive instructions from other components of the device. The system can control everything from small devices such as calculators and mobile phones to large automobile.

What is Register?

In computer architecture, a processor register (or general purpose register) is a small amount of storage available on the CPU whose contents can be accessed more quickly than storage available elsewhere. Typically, this specialized storage is not considered part of normal memory range for the machine. Processor registers are at the top of the memory hierarchy, and provide the fastest way for a CPU to access data.

What is called scratch pad of computer?

Cache memory is scratch pad of computer.

Why does Microprocessor contain ROM chip?

Microprocessor contain ROM chip because it contain instruction to execute data.

Why status signal is provided in microprocessor?

The status signal can be used by the system designer to track the internal operation of the processor. Also it can be used for memory expansion (by providing separate memory bank for program, data and selecting the bank using status signals.

What is programmable peripheral device?

If the function performed by a peripheral device can be altered or changed by a program instruction then the peripheral device is called programmable device. Usually the programmable devices will have control registers. The device can be programmed by sending control word in the prescribed format to the control register.

Explain the working of a handshake output port?

In handshake output operation the processor will load a data to port. When the port receives the data, it will inform the output device to collect the data. Once the output device accepts the data, the port will inform the processor that it is empty. Now the processor can load another data to port and above process is repeated.

What is cache memory?

Cache memory is small high speed memory. It is used for temporary storage of data & information between main memory and CPU (central processing unit).

Define HCMOS?

High density n-type Complementary Metal Oxide silicon field effect Transistor.

What is Flag?

Flag is flip-flop used to store the information about the status of a processor and status of instruction executed most recently.

What is NV-RAM?

Non Volatile Read Write memory, also called flash memory. It is also known as shadow RAM.

What is Direction Flag?

This is used by string manipulation instructions. If this flag bit is ‘0’, the string is processed beginning from the lowest to highest address i.e. Auto increment mode. Otherwise string is processed from the highest towards the lowest address i.e. auto decrementing mode.

What is instruction set?

The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute.

Why address bus is unidirectional?

The address is identification number used by the microprocessor to identify or access a memory location or IO device. It is an output signal from the processor. Hence the address bus is unidirectional.

Here is the end of this post. Probably in the next post will see more challenging interview questions on embedded processors. I hope you’ll find this post educational. Thanks…!!!!

About Umesh Lokhande

Umesh Lokhande holds a Master degree in Scientific Instrumentation from University of Applied Sciences Jena, Germany. and has previously worked at Orbotech, Alere Technologies etc. Umesh is also a founder and first author of BINARYUPDATES.COM

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